User Profiling under the EU Data Protection Rules

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Understanding one’s customers is the key of any successful business that focuses on providing personalised and targeted services. Start-ups are not an exception in this regard. Indeed, establishing customers’ profiles, or in other words “profiling”, may play an intrinsic role in a business plan of a new endeavour. It can even help to improve services as well as the overall …

The Regulation of Virtual and Crypto Currencies: A Global Overview

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Virtual commerce is one of the top emerging industries. Within this rising commercial environment, virtual and cryptocurrencies create new opportunities when it comes to payment transactions. These currencies facilitate user anonymity, wide transferability and high independence. By simplifying transactions and by preventing users to enter personal payment details, end users can be motivated to use virtual money. Hence, the introduction …

The Liability of Internet Intermediaries in the EU

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Within the online environment, start-ups often times fulfil an intermediary role. An important question on start-ups’ minds is whether they can be subject to liability claims as a result of the conduct of their end-users. For instance, what would happen if the user of an online video platform would upload copyrighted content without consent of the copyright owner? Start-ups may …

The importance of Net Neutrality for Start-Ups

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Net Neutrality, the principle that all data should be treated equally on the internet, is of utmost importance to start-ups. Although the EU Connected Continent Proposal plans to introduce net neutrality on a pan-European level, its exact scope remains undetermined. As long as EU-wide legislation is absent, Member States are currently free to decide themselves on how to approach the …

Start-ups and Data Protection Consumer Consent

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Start-ups often consider data to be the raw material for innovation. Many start-ups process data they have collected from their end-users. In order to protect the data subject however, start-ups must have a legitimate basis to perform these processing acts. Considering the importance of consumer trust, start-ups may want to obtain consent from their end-users for these activities. Indeed, using …

Non Disclosure Agreements for Start-Ups

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Start-ups value their business idea and intellectual property. Therefore, it is indispensable that start-ups ensure the confidentiality of their business information and trade secrets. However, in order to translate the idea into a successful business and bring the product to market, start-ups will invariably need to disclose their information with investors, suppliers, consultants and even new employees. For that reason …

Intellectual Property Law: Financing Mechanism for Start-Ups

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Within the Information Society, the value of a start-up does not depend on its physical assets. On the contrary, intangible assets, such as intellectual property (IP) are crucial elements for start-ups when they wish to establish a competitive market position. In the start-up stage, the value of IP potentially higher than any other business asset. Moreover, IP creates opportunities, both …

Competition Law and the Start-Up Community: An Overview

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Competition law aims to govern efficient market participation by ensuring a level-playing-field. Although often linked to big corporations, this field of law may be of considerable importance to start-ups. On the one hand competition law can be used as a weapon against anti-competitive behaviour of established, market participants. On the other hand, start-ups themselves may be subject to competition law. …

A Crowdfunding Taxonomy for-Start Ups

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Crowdfunding has become an attractive means for start-ups to acquire the necessary funds for their projects. Moreover, more and more start-ups have become active in the operation of crowdfunding platforms themselves. Whether a start-up operates a crowdfunding platform or aims to collect funds through such a network, both activities may be subject to regulation. Much depends upon the type of …

Intellectual Property: International Intellectual PropertyProtection – A Start-Up Guide

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Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) are governed by the principle of territoriality: the exclusive right will only grant protection for the territory in which it was obtained. Start-ups seeking protection in multiple territories will thus have to file for protection multiple times. Consequently, the transaction costs for those seeking protection can be quite high. Start-ups must therefore carefully assess where they …